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How Does the Cone Crusher Develop?

Author : Jordan | Last Updated :

Cone crusher, being used to crush hard materials, was designed by the American Simmons Brothers in 1920. With nearly 100 years of development, it has become an indispensable role in the line of various medium-hard materials crushing and metal raw ore beneficiation.

It is estimated that about 5-6 billion tons of raw ore need to be crushed and ground each year. In order to meet the rapid development requirements of the construction industry and mining industry, the technology of cone crushing is also progressing.

There are 5 most popular types of cone crushers on the market: spring cone crusher, Symons cone crusher, hydraulic cone crusher, multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, and single cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, according to their advancement. And the advancement mainly manifested in 4 aspects: technology, structure, degree of automation and overall machine control.

The development of cone crusher

The development of cone crusher

Technology innovation

Spring cone crusher, as the earliest cone crusher formed by absorbing advanced technology in the 1980s in various countries, is equipped with reinforcing ribs at the heavy load part, and there are 10-16 groups of springs around for the removal of hard materials and iron protection.

After many years of practical experience, in order to avoid the overload of the crusher caused by the large stiffness of the spring, the design was added with a hydraulic cylinder, which is now called Symons cone crusher. The hydraulic cylinder can remove excess material in the crushing cavity in time and reduce downtime, which improves the production efficiency greatly.

Spring cone crusher, the earliest cone crusher

Spring cone crusher, the earliest cone crusher

With the development of hydraulic technology, the Allis-Chalmers company from America first produced hydraulic cone crusher in 1948. This cone crusher completely abandoned the spring-type safety device and adopted the technology of hydraulic adjustment for changing discharge and overload protection.

And after about ten years of research and improvement of the hydraulic technology, in order to meet the needs of larger capacity, the Nordberg Company in the United States launched a multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher. The 10-16 sets of spring cone-broken springs are replaced by 10-16 safety cylinders.

Based on one hydraulic clear cylinder of hydraulic cone crusher, the latter added two other hydraulic cylinders: pushing cylinder and locking cylinder for outlet discharge adjustment and overload protection.

The single-cylinder cone crusher is the most advanced cone crusher with the largest capacity on the market. With the American technology of the lamination crushing principle and the static pressure theory, it is another important breakthrough based on the multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher.

On the basis of retaining the functions of the pushing cylinder, locking cylinder and hydraulic cylinder, the three are creatively combined into one to realize one cylinder for three kinds of uses.

The development of hydraulic cylinder

The development of hydraulic cylinder

Structure optimization

Being aimed at improving competitiveness in the market, the cone crusher has continuously improved its production capacity and streamlined the structure during these 100 years.

Not only the appearance and operation are more concise, but also the improvement of the cavity shape has greatly improved the crushing capacity. Besides, optimizing the details makes the maintenance of the cone crusher easier and more convenient.

Overall structure

From the perspective of the overall structure, the development of the cone crusher tends to be more concise and easier to operate. It is mainly manifested in two aspects: the abandonment of spring safety devices and the development of hydraulic safety devices.

Spring safety devices are used for spring cone crusher and Symons cone crusher. And at the stage of hydraulic cone crusher, they are completely replaced by hydraulic safety devices. More than 50 related parts have also been gradually streamlined, which makes the entire structure simpler and easier to operate and maintain.

The hydraulic safety device has undergone the model of multi cylinders for different uses and one single cylinder with all functions, which reduces production costs and increases capacity effectively. Besides, the structure of the whole crusher is simpler and the operation is more stable.


Types of cone crusher crushing cavity can be divided into 3 types: standard type, medium type, and short head type. The choice of cavity type is determined by the use of ore, the standard type is suitable for medium crushing, the medium type is suitable for fine crushing, and the short head type is suitable for ultra-fine crushing.

The progress of the cavity

The progress of the cavity

As the crusher that rely on extrusion crushing, the grain shape of cone crusher is not as good as the impact crusher. To improve this shortcoming, the multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher has added the design of lamination crushing and constant cavity. Based on these, not only the grain shape can be guaranteed, but also the energy consumption and cost can be reduced greatly.

The hydraulic safety device of the single-cylinder cone crusher is designed to be a single cylinder with three functions, which effectively increases the volume of the crushing cavity.  The upper part of the crushing cavity is deeper, so its capacity is the largest. With the same diameter of the moving cone, the capacity is 35% -60% higher than the old-fashioned spring cone crusher.


As the continuous developing of technology, some details such as the gaps of various parts, lubrication systems, and dust protection systems have made significant progress.

Starting from the multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher, the mortar wall and the body, the copper cone sleeve, and the main shaft have been designed with zero gaps. The integrated design makes the disassembly and maintenance of the cone crusher more convenient.

To keep the crusher always in good condition for operating, a complete lubrication system has been provided from the initial spring cone crusher. It is worth mentioning that at the stage of hydraulic cone crusher, the lubrication system is replaced by a more advanced model, thin oil lubrication station. The new lubricating system is smaller in size and simpler to maintain.

In addition, the hydraulic cone crusher uses a non-contact labyrinth seal with no wear, based on the dry oil sealing, which improves the reliability of blocking dust and fundamentally eliminates common faults such as oil-water mixing of spring cone crushers.

Thin oil lubrication station diagram

Thin oil lubrication station diagram

Automation improvement

The degree of automation of cone crushing is mainly reflected in 3 aspects, the adjustment of the discharge port, overload cleaning cavity, and iron protection during operation.

Adjustment of the discharge port

The adjustment of the cone crusher discharge port is mainly achieved by adjusting the gap between the moving cone and the fixed cone.

The adjustment of spring and Symons cone crusher are in a manual way. Adjustment cap can be tightened to reduce the distance between the mortar wall and the crushing wall. And then the discharge port changes.

From the hydraulic cone crusher, the adjustment of the discharge port became automatic. Gears of hydraulic cone crusher and multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher can be turned deasil or widdershins so that to push the pushing cylinder to adjust the discharge port. The only thing being different is its degree of automation. the latter is more advanced.

The single-cylinder cone crusher adjusts the size of the discharge port by the lifting and lowering of the crushing wall by the hydraulic cylinder at the bottom of the machine.

The adjustment of cone crusher discharge

The adjustment of cone crusher discharge

Overload cleaning cavity

Spring cone crushing mainly depends on the manual use of a jack to lift the upper part of the crusher when there is too much material to be blocked, so that excess material can be discharged.

Obviously, it is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Moreover, the time for stopping is too long to affect the overall project progress.

To save maintenance time, Symons cone crusher, hydraulic cone crusher, and multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher are added with the clearing cylinder. When the material of is overloaded, the clearing cylinder will lift the part to discharge the material. Automatic cavity cleaning can effectively reduce downtime and ensure production efficiency.

Iron protection

The iron protection of spring cone crusher and Symons cone crusher mainly depends on the expansion and contraction of the external springs.

When the hard material enters into the crushing cavity, it will give an upward force to the bottom of the rolling mortar wall, and force the fixed cone to move upward, then the spring fixed on the support sleeve and the frame will be stretched. As the fixed cone moves up, the gap between the crushing wall and the mortar wall will expand, and the hard material will fall to the discharge port.

Due to the excessive rigidity of the spring, the hydraulic cone crusher and multi-cylinder hydraulic cone crusher use the hydraulic cavity clearing cylinder and locking cylinder hydraulic insurance system for iron protection.

The clearing cylinder will be released by releasing the hydraulic cylinder in the case of iron passing and when the cone crusher be jammed instantly. The support sleeve and the fixed cone part can be lifted to automatically eliminate the faults in the crushing cavity so that the fault can be handled without disassembly.

Overall operation convenience

PLC + touch screen automatic control

PLC + touch screen automatic control

Controlling the machine manually is time-consuming and laborious. With the continuous development of technology, the design of the hydraulic cone crusher adopts a fully automatic control system, which realizes remote and machine-side control, making the control of machine more convenient.

The multi-cylinder hydraulic and single-cylinder cone crushers use a more advanced full-automatic control system based on PLC + touch screen, which is not only easy to operate, but also more sensitive and reliable in touch.


Cone crusher can crush harder materials compared with other crushers, which determines its irreplaceable position in ore beneficiation and rock crushing line. Over the years, cone crushers have become the mainstay for metal ore beneficiation and high hardness rocks crushing.

It is believed that with the continuous advancement of technology and the development of automation, it will achieve larger crushing capabilities and more convenient operation modes.

High-quality cone crusher from FTM

High-quality cone crusher from FTM

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Author : Jordan Jordan is the writer of the blog with a broad knowledge of this industry. Most importantly, he hopes to help you in your projects sincerely.


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